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Thiourea
CAS NO: 62-56-6
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Thiourea

MolecularFormula: H2CSNH2
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1) Basic information of Thiourea:

 

CAS No.: 62-56-6

Name: Thiourea

Formula: CH4N2S

Molecular Weight: 76.13

Synonyms: 2-Thiourea; Isothiourea; sulfocarbamide; sulfouren; sulourea; Thiocarbamide; Thiurea; THU; thio arbamid; sulphourea; carbamoylsulfamic acid

EINECS: 200-543-5

Density: 1.326 g/cm3

Melting Point: 171 °C

Boiling Point: 186.836 °C at 760 mmHg

Flash Point66.796 °C

Solubility: 13.6 g/100 mL (20 °C) in water

Appearance: white crystals or powder

Character: white glossy crystal, bitter taste, soluble in water and alcohol

Packing: polypropylene bag, 25kg/bag net

Storage information: Store in Cool and dry .place, keep away from strong light, high temperature

Usage: Used in the manufacture of sulfonamide, dye, resin, molding powder and so on, also used as rubber vulcanization accelerator, metallic minerals flotation agent and so on

 

2) Introduction of Thiourea:


Thiourea, also called thiocarbamide,  an organic compound that resembles urea but contains sulfur instead of oxygen; i.e., the molecular formula is CS(NH2)2, while that of urea is CO(NH2)2. Like urea, it can be prepared by causing a compound with the same chemical composition to undergo rearrangement, as by heating ammonium thiocyanate (NH4SCN). A method of preparation more commonly used consists of the addition of hydrogen sulfide to cyanamide. Thiourea exhibits many of the chemical properties of urea, but it has little commercial application. The small quantity of thiourea consumed is utilized primarily in photography as a fixing agent, in the manufacture of a thermosetting resin, as an insecticide, as a textile-treating agent, and as starting material for certain dyes and drugs. Thiourea forms as colourless crystals melting at 182° C (360° F). It is toxic, although the fatal dosage is not well established.


3) Specification of Thiourea are:  


National standard

HG/T3266-2002(工业用硫脲国家标准)

Purity

99%

Loss on heating

0.4%

Ash

0.1%

Insoluble matter

0.02%

Thiocyanate(with CNS-

0.02%

Fusion point

171


4) Preparation of Thiourea : 


Numerous methods have already been proposed for the manufacture of thiourea by the treatment of an alkaline earth metal salt of cyanamide, such as calcium cyanamide, in the presence or absence of water with hydrogen sulfide or an alkaline earth metal sulfide, as calcium or barium sulfide and an agent such as carbonic acid, phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid or the like which decompose to form hydrogen sulfide and an insoluble alkaline earth metal salt. The reaction has been conducted at elevated and at ordinary temperatures and with or without the application of pressure.

Its preparation methods is barium sulfide reaction with sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid, hydrogen sulfide gas by lime milk, negative pressure absorbing hydrogen sulfide was calcium solution reacts with calcium cyanamide, sulfur, calcium hydroxide and calcium cyanamide mole ratio is 1:5, under stirring constantly, the reaction temperature for 80 + 5 ℃, reaction time is 3 h, the negative pressure filter, the thiourea can generate liquid, then through evaporation, filtration, cooling, crystallization, a quick crystal thiourea, centrifugal dehydration for a quick finished products.

Reaction equation, such as: BaS + - H2SO4, BaSO4 + H2

H2s + Ca (OH) 2 and Ca 2 + 2 h2o (SH)

5) Uses of Thiourea: 

 

1.Producing thiourea dioxide,replacing sodium hydrosulfite

2.Used as flotation agent in gold mine

3.Used as intermediate of thiazole and drugs inhibiting thyroid disease

4.Used as intermediate of pesticide

5.Used as the production of resin materials

6.Used as bleaching agent, coloring agent and antioxidant in textile industry

7.Used in photography, electroplating etc.


6)Analytical methods of Thiourea


Other industrial uses of thiourea include production of flame retardant resins, and vulcanization accelerators.

Thiourea is used as an auxiliary agent in diazo paper, light-sensitive photocopy paper and almost all other types of copy paper.

It is also used to tone silver-gelatin photographic prints.

The determination of thiourea in workplace air can be carried out by adsorption on a glass fibre filter, filterelution with water in an ultrasonic bath, C18 reversedphase HPLC with water as the mobile phase, and UV detection at 245 nm. The detection limit is 0.4 μg thiourea/litre sample solution; a recovery rate of 106 ±6% is given.

This method can also be applied to the detection of thiourea in water. The detection limit is 0.1 mg/litre

water. Thiourea concentrations above 10 mg/litre have to be diluted before analysis; solutions with very low

concentrations of the chemical can be concentrated in a rotary evaporator.

7) Effects on humans of Thiourea

There are reports on disorders of workers coming into contact with thiourea during the course of, for example, maintenance of machinery or packing, without providing any details as to exposure levels. The symptoms observed were typical of hypothyroidism, as

evidenced by facial oedema, hypotonia, bradycardia,electrocardiograph alterations associated with reduced basal metabolism, constipation, flatulence, polyuria, and granulocytopenia, accompanied by lymphocytosis and monocytosis. The first perturbations of the blood count were observed after 5.6 months of exposure, and the highest incidence of the symptoms was evident in those workers who 

had been in contact with the chemical for 5.15 years. Indications of reduced thyroid function were observed in a Russian study of workers employed in thiourea manufacture. 

8)A tunable library of substituted thiourea precursors to metal sulfide nanocrystals

Controlling the size of colloidal nanocrystals is essential to optimizing their performance in optoelectronic devices, 

catalysis, and imaging applications. Traditional synthetic methods control size by terminating the growth, an approach 

that limits the reaction yield and causes batch-to-batch variability. Herein we report a library of thioureas whose 

substitution pattern tunes their conversion reactivity over more than five orders of magnitude and demonstrate that faster 

thiourea conversion kinetics increases the extent of crystal nucleation. Tunable kinetics thereby allows the nanocrystal 

concentration to be adjusted and a desired crystal size to be prepared at full conversion. Controlled precursor reactivity 

and quantitative conversion improve the batch-to-batch consistency of the final nanocrystal size at industrially relevant 

reaction scales.

9)Research delivers insight into the worldwide thiourea dioxide market

This report analyse the Thiourea Dioxide industry in two aspects. One part is about its production and the other part is about its consumption.

In terms of its production, it analyzes the production, revenue, gross margin of its main manufacturers and the unit price that they offer in different regions from 2011 to 2017. In terms of its consumption, it analyzes the consumption volume, consumption value, sale price, import and export in different regions from 2011 to 2017.

Thiourea Dioxide industry report also provides a prediction of its production and consumption in coming 2017-2021. At the same time, it classifies different Thiourea Dioxide based on their definitions.

Upstream raw materials, equipment and downstream consumers analysis is also carried out. What’s more, the Thiourea Dioxide industry development trends and marketing channels are analyzed.

Finally, the feasibility of new investment projects is assessed, and overall research conclusions are offered.

Data source: customs database, industry association, expert interview and network information,.

Companies profiled in this report are Hongye Holding, Huifeng Chemical, Dasteck Chemicals, Shenghe Zhuji, Haosen Biotechnology, Xinsheng Chemical, Ruimin Chemistry and Puzhong Chemical in terms of Product Picture, Specifications, Capacity, Production, Price, Cost, Revenue and Contact Information.

Preview of topics covered in Thiourea Dioxide Market Report are as follows:

1 Industry Overview of Thiourea Dioxide

1.1 Brief Introduction of Thiourea Dioxide

1.2 Classification of Thiourea Dioxide

1.3 Status of Thiourea Dioxide Industry

2 Industry Chain Analysis of Thiourea Dioxide

2.1 Supply Chain Relationship Analysis of Thiourea Dioxide

2.2 Upstream Major Raw Materials and Price Analysis of Thiourea Dioxide

2.3 Downstream Applications of Thiourea Dioxide

3 Manufacturing Technology of Thiourea Dioxide

3.1 Development of Thiourea Dioxide Manufacturing Technology

3.2 Manufacturing Process Analysis of Thiourea Dioxide

3.3 Trends of Thiourea Dioxide Manufacturing Technology

4 Major Manufacturers Analysis of Thiourea Dioxide

5 Global Productions, Revenue and Price Analysis of Thiourea Dioxide by Regions, Manufacturers, Types and Applications

5.1 Global Production, Revenue of Thiourea Dioxide by Regions 2011-2017

5.2 Global Production, Revenue of Thiourea Dioxide by Manufacturers 2011-2017

5.3 Global Production, Revenue of Thiourea Dioxide by Types 2011-2017

5.4 Global Production, Revenue of Thiourea Dioxide by Applications 2011-2017

5.5 Price Analysis of Global Thiourea Dioxide by Regions, Manufacturers, Types and Applications in 2011-2017

6 Global and Major Regions Capacity, Production, Revenue and Growth Rate of Thiourea Dioxide 2011-2017

6.1 Global Capacity, Production, Price, Cost, Revenue, of Thiourea Dioxide 2011-2017

6.2 China Capacity, Production, Price, Cost, Revenue, of Thiourea Dioxide 2011-2017

6.3 Europe Capacity, Production, Price, Cost, Revenue, of Thiourea Dioxide 2011-2017

6.4 Asia excepting China Capacity, Production, Price, Cost, Revenue, of Thiourea Dioxide 2011-2017

6.5 North America Capacity, Production, Price, Cost, Revenue, of Thiourea Dioxide 2011-2017

7 Consumption Volume, Consumption Value, Import, Export and Sale Price Analysis of Thiourea Dioxide by Regions

7.1 Global Consumption Volume and Consumption Value of Thiourea Dioxide by Regions 2011-2017

7.2 Global Consumption Volume, Consumption Value and Growth Rate of Thiourea Dioxide 2011-2017

7.3 China Consumption Volume, Consumption Value, Import, Export and Growth Rate of Thiourea Dioxide 2011-2017

7.4 Europe Consumption Volume, Consumption Value, Import, Export and Growth Rate of Thiourea Dioxide 2011-2017

7.4 Asia excepting China Consumption Volume, Consumption Value, Import, Export and Growth Rate of Thiourea Dioxide 2011-2017

7.5 North America Consumption Volume, Consumption Value, Import, Export and Growth Rate of Thiourea Dioxide 2011-2017

7.6 Sale Price Analysis of Global Thiourea Dioxide by Regions 2011-2017

8 Gross and Gross Margin Analysis of Thiourea Dioxide

8.1 Global Gross and Gross Margin of Thiourea Dioxide by Regions 2011-2017

8.2 Global Gross and Gross Margin of Thiourea Dioxide by Manufacturers 2011-2017

8.3 Global Gross and Gross Margin of Thiourea Dioxide by Types 2011-2017

8.4 Global Gross and Gross Margin of Thiourea Dioxide by Applications 2011-2017

9 Marketing Traders or Distributor Analysis of Thiourea Dioxide

9.1 Marketing Channels Status of Thiourea Dioxide

9.2 Marketing Channels Characteristic of Thiourea Dioxide

9.3 Marketing Channels Development Trend of Thiourea Dioxide

10 Global and Chinese Economic Impacts on Thiourea Dioxide Industry

10.1 Global and Chinese Macroeconomic Environment Analysis

10.2 Effects to Thiourea Dioxide Industry

11 Development Trend Analysis of Thiourea Dioxide

11.1 Capacity, Production and Revenue Forecast of Thiourea Dioxide by Regions, Types and Applications

11.2 Consumption Volume and Consumption Value Forecast of Thiourea Dioxide by Regions

11.3 Supply, Import, Export and Consumption Forecast of Thiourea Dioxide

12 Contact information of Thiourea Dioxide

12.1 Upstream Major Raw Materials and Equipment Suppliers Analysis of Thiourea Dioxide

12.2 Downstream Major Consumers Analysis of Thiourea Dioxide

12.3 Major Suppliers of Thiourea Dioxide with Contact Information

12.4 Supply Chain Relationship Analysis of Thiourea Dioxide

13 New Project Investment Feasibility Analysis of Thiourea Dioxide

13.1 New Project SWOT Analysis of Thiourea Dioxide

13.2 New Project Investment Feasibility Analysis of Thiourea Dioxide

14 Conclusion of the Global Thiourea Dioxide Industry 

10) Related images of Thiourea

ThioureaThioureaThioureaThioureaThioureaThioureaThioureaThioureaThioureaThioureaThioureaThiourea


10) Source of sulfide to Thiourea


Thiourea is commonly employed as a source of sulfide, e.g. for converting alkyl halides to thiols. Such reactions proceed via the intermediacy of isothiuronium salts. The reaction capitalizes on the high nucleophilicity of the sulfur center and easy hydrolysis of the intermediate isothiouronium salt:


CS(NH2)2 + RX → RSC(NH2)2+X?

RSC(NH2)2+X? + 2 NaOH → RSNa + OC(NH2)2 + NaX

RSNa + HCl → RSH + NaCl

In this example, ethane-1,2-dithiol is prepared from 1,2-dibromoethane:


C2H4Br2 + 2 SC(NH2)2 → [ C2H4(SC(NH2)2)2]Br2

[ C2H4(SC(NH2)2)2]Br2 + 2 KOH → C2H4(SH)2 + 2 OC(NH2)2 + 2 KBr

Like thioamides, thiourea can serve as a source of sulfide upon reaction with soft metal ions. For example, mercury sulfide forms when mercuric salts in aqueous solution are treated with thiourea:


Hg2+ + SC(NH2)2 + H2O → HgS + OC(NH2)2 + 2 H+



11)Thiourea Emergency treatment and disposal methods:


A thiourea ACCIDENTAL


Isolation leakage polluted area, located around the warning signs, the proposed emergency personnel wearing gas masks, chemical protective clothing to wear. Do not spill direct contact with thiourea. With the clean-shovel collection in a dry Clean covered containers, transported to the waste disposal sites. You can also use a lot of water rinse, diluted Add Water Wastewater System. Such as thiourea large spills, recycling or collection of sound waste treatment.


Second, the protective measures thiourea


Respiratory protection: air concentrations exceeding wearing protective masks.

Eye protection: Most do not need special protection. If necessary, wearing chemical protective safety glasses.

Protective Clothing: Wear appropriate protective clothing. Hand protection: Wear gloves against chemicals.

Other: work, take a shower. Separate storage of poison contaminated clothes, washed reuse. To maintain good health habits.

 

3 thiourea aid measures


Thiourea Skin contact: Remove contaminated clothing, mobile water rinse.

Thiourea eye contact: immediately filed eyelid, mobile water rinse.

Thiourea Inhalation: from the scene to fresh air. If necessary, artificial respiration. Medical treatment.

Thiourea Fresh into: coverage to those who drink large warm water, the symptoms. Medical treatment. Fire fighting methods: mist of water, carbon dioxide, sand, foam.


12)HANDLING AND STORAGE to thiourea


1 thiourea Handling Precautions



Closed operation, local exhaust. The operator must go through specialized training, strict adherence to rules. Proposed operators wear self-absorption filter respirators, wearing chemical protective safety glasses and rubber gloves. Away from fire, heat, workplace smoking. Use explosion-proof ventilation systems and equipment. Avoid creating dust. Avoid oxidizing agents, acids touch. When moving to light light unloading, prevent damage to packaging and containers. Corresponding with the variety and quantity of fire equipment and spill response equipment. Empty containers may be harmful residues.


2 thiourea storage Precautions


Store in a cool, ventilated warehouse. Away from fire and heat. Sealed packaging. Should oxidants, acids, food chemicals stored separately, avoid mixing reservoir. Corresponding with the variety and quantity of fire equipment. Storage areas should be equipped with suitable material spill.


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